The fetal alcohol syndrome was first described in 1968 by Lemoine who had identified in children of women who consumed large amounts of alcohol during pregnancy, morphological abnormalities of the face: short palpebral fissures (small eyes ) facies flattened, thin upper lip and philtrum flat or smooth. These children also exhibited growth retardation and behavioral disorders and cognition.
Today, the diagnosis of a child with FAS based on a combination of the following criteria, in the context of alcohol during pregnancy:
>> Growth retardation
>> Central nervous system (neurological abnormalities, developmental delays, behavioral disorders, cognitive disorders or other cognitive deficits)
>> Facial features
In France, the FAS is the leading cause of non-genetic mental retardation.